Share Bazar
What is meant by a Stock Exchange?
The Securities Contract (Regulation) Act, 1956 [SCRA] defines 'Stock Exchange' as any body of individuals, whether incorporated or not, constituted for the purpose of assisting, regulating or controlling the business of buying, selling or dealing in securities. Stock exchange could be a regional stock exchange whose area of operation/jurisdiction is specified at the time of its recognition or national exchanges, which are permitted to have nationwide trading since inception. NSE was incorporated as a national stock exchange.
What is an 'Equity'/Share?
Total equity capital of a company is divided into equal units of small denominations, each called a share. For example, in a company the total equity capital of Rs 2,00,00,000 is divided into 20,00,000 units of Rs 10 each. Each such unit of Rs 10 is called a Share. Thus, the company then is said to have 20,00,000 equity shares of Rs 10 each. The holders of such shares are members of the company and have voting rights.
What is a 'Debt Instrument'?
Debt instrument represents a contract whereby one party lends money to another on pre-determined terms with regards to rate and periodicity of interest, repayment of principal amount by the borrower to the lender. In the Indian securities markets, the term 'bond' is used for debt instruments issued by the Central and State governments and public sector organizations and the term 'debenture' is used for instruments issued by private corporate sector.
What is a Derivative?
Derivative is a product whose value is derived from the value of one or more basic variables, called underlying. The underlying asset can be equity, index, foreign exchange (forex), commodity or any other asset. Derivative products initially emerged as hedging devices against fluctuations in commodity prices and commodity-linked derivatives remained the sole form of such products for almost three hundred years. The financial derivatives came into spotlight in post-1970 period due to growing instability in the financial markets. However, since their emergence, these products have become very popular and by 1990s, they accounted for about two thirds of total transactions in derivative products.
What is an Index?
An Index shows how a specified portfolio of share prices are moving in order to give an indication of market trends. It is a basket of securities and the average price movement of the basket of securities indicates the index movement, whether upwards or downwards.
What is a Depository?
A depository is like a bank wherein the deposits are securities (viz. shares, debentures, bonds, government securities, units etc.) in electronic form.
What is Dematerialization?
Dematerialization is the process by which physical certificates of an investor are converted to an equivalent number of securities in electronic form and credited to the investor's account with his Depository Participant (DP).
What is meant by 'Securities'?
The definition of 'Securities' as per the Securities Contracts Regulation Act (SCRA), 1956, includes instruments such as shares, bonds, scrips, stocks or other marketable securities of similar nature in or of any incorporate company or body corporate, government securities, derivatives of securities, units of collective investment scheme, interest and rights in securities, security receipt or any other instruments so declared by the Central Government.
What is the function of Securities Market?
The definition of 'Securities' as per the Securities Contracts Regulation Act (SCRA), 1956, includes instruments such as shares, bonds, scrips, stocks or other marketable securities of similar nature in or of any incorporate company or body corporate, government securities, derivatives of securities, units of collective investment scheme, interest and rights in securities, security receipt or any other instruments so declared by the Central Government.
Who regulates the Securities Market ?
The responsibility for regulating the securities market is shared by Department of Economic Affairs (DEA), Department of Company Affairs (DCA), Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).
What is SEBI and what is its role?
The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is the regulatory authority in India established under Section 3 of SEBI Act, 1992. SEBI Act, 1992 provides for establishment of Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) with statutory powers for (a) protecting the interests of investors in securities (b) promoting the development of the securities market and (c) regulating the securities market. Its regulatory jurisdiction extends over corporate in the issuance of capital and transfer of securities, in addition to all intermediaries and persons associated with securities market. SEBI has been obligated to perform the aforesaid functions by such measures as it thinks fit. In particular, it has powers for: •Regulating the business in stock exchanges and any other securities markets would your family face upon your death? •Registering and regulating the working of stock brokers, sub–brokers etc. •Promoting and regulating self-regulatory organizations •Prohibiting fraudulent and unfair trade practices •Calling for information from, undertaking inspection, conducting inquiries and audits of the stock exchanges, intermediaries, self –regulatory organizations, mutual funds and other persons associated with the securities market.
Who are the participants in the Securities Market?
The securities market essentially has three categories of participants, namely, the issuers of securities, investors in securities and the intermediaries, such as merchant bankers, brokers etc. While the corporate and government raise resources from the securities market to meet their obligations, it is households that invest their savings in the securities market.
Is it necessary to transact through an intermediary?
It is advisable to conduct transactions through an intermediary. For example you need to transact through a trading member of a stock exchange if you intend to buy or sell any security on stock exchanges. You need to maintain an account with a depository if you intend to hold securities in demat form. You need to deposit money with a banker to an issue if you are subscribing to public issues. You get guidance if you are transacting through an intermediary. Chose a SEBI registered intermediary, as he is accountable for its activities. The list of registered intermediaries is available with exchanges, industry associations etc.
What are the segments of Securities Market?
The securities market has two interdependent segments: the primary (new issues) market and the secondary market. The primary market provides the channel for sale of new securities while the secondary market deals in securities previously issued.
What is the role of the 'Primary Market'?
The primary market provides the channel for sale of new securities. Primary market provides opportunity to issuers of securities; Government as well as corporate, to raise resources to meet their requirements of investment and/or discharge some obligation. They may issue the securities at face value, or at a discount/premium and these securities may take a variety of forms such as equity, debt etc. They may issue the securities in domestic market and/or international market.
What is meant by Face Value of a share/debenture?
The nominal or stated amount (in Rs.) assigned to a security by the issuer. For shares, it is the original cost of the stock shown on the certificate; for bonds, it is the amount paid to the holder at maturity. Also known as par value or simply par. For an equity share, the face value is usually a very small amount (Rs. 5, Rs. 10) and does not have much bearing on the price of the share, which may quote higher in the market, at Rs. 100 or Rs. 1000 or any other price. For a debt security, face value is the amount repaid to the investor when the bond matures (usually, Government securities and corporate bonds have a face value of Rs. 100). The price at which the security trades depends on the fluctuations in the interest rates in the economy.
What do you mean by the term Premium and Discount in a Security Market?
Securities are generally issued in denominations of 5, 10 or 100. This is known as the Face Value or Par Value of the security as discussed earlier. When a security is sold above its face value, it is said to be issued at a Premium and if it is sold at less than its face value, then it is said to be issued at a Discount.
Why do companies need to issue shares to the public?
Most companies are usually started privately by their promoter(s). However, the promoters' capital and the borrowings from banks and financial institutions may not be sufficient for setting up or running the business over a long term. So companies invite the public to contribute towards the equity and issue shares to individual investors. The way to invite share capital from the public is through a 'Public Issue'. Simply stated, a public issue is an offer to the public to subscribe to the share capital of a company. Once this is done, the company allots shares to the applicants as per the prescribed rules and regulations laid down by SEBI.
What is meant by Issue price?
The price at which a company's shares are offered initially in the primary market is called as the Issue price. When they begin to be traded, the market price may be above or below the issue price.
What is meant by Market Capitalization?
The market value of a quoted company, which is calculated by multiplying its current share price (market price) by the number of shares in issue, is called as market capitalization. E.g. Company A has 120 million shares in issue. The current market price is Rs. 100. The market capitalization of company A is Rs. 12000 million.
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